Модальные глаголы (грамматика, теория и практика)

English Modal Verbs Table

Modalverb Usage Example
can ability I can do several things
at the same time.
whensomethingispossible Miraclescanhappen.
permission Youcangonow.
informalrequests Can you come here for a minute?
could pastformof «can» She said she could pay
for us as well.
politerequests Could you move
your bag, please?
possibility It could be that he
missed the train.
may possibility Itmayraintomorrow.
ask for or give
permission (formal)
May I speak?
might pastformof «may» He said he might
change his mind.
possibility Thismightfail.
must you have to do it You must obey the law.
it’s very logical or
very likely to happen
They left so early, they
must be home by now.
mustnot/
mustn’t
you are not
allowed to do it
You mustn’t smoke in here.
shall future for «I» and «we» I shall see him tomorrow.
questions and suggestions for «I» and «we» Let’scontinue, shallwe?
should the right thing to do She should call the police.
advice — What should I do?
— You should stop
thinking about it.
what is likely or
expected to happen
We should be
back by midnight.
will future action or states
(not plans)
Prices will go up
next summer.
promisesandintentions It’s alright, I’ll pick it up.
would pastformof «will» He told me he would come.
imaginedsituations What would you do
if you were him?
for polite requests, offers and invitations — Would you please sit down?
— Would you like some tea?
— We are meeting with Sarah
next Saturday, would you like to come along?
to say what you
want to do or have
I would like a piece of cake.
oughtto the right thing to do Yououghttoapologize.

English Modal Verbs – Situations Table

Situation ModalVerb Example
requests
(formal)
may May I sitdown?
requests
(informal)
can Can I sitdown?
requests
(polite)
could Could I sitdown?
requests
(polite)
would Would you mind if I sit down?
permission
(formal)
may Youmaysitdown.
permission
(informal)
can Youcansitdown.
obligation
(full)
must You must tell the
police the truth.
obligation
(partial)
should You should tell
your friends the truth.
obligation (partial)
(lesscommon)
oughtto You ought to tell
your friends the truth.
logical conclusions 
(stronger than «should»)
must He left an hour ago, so he must be there already.
logical conclusions 
(weaker than «must»)
should He left half an hour ago, I believe he should
be there already.
possibility
(general)
can Itcanrainsometimes.
possibility

(weaker than
«may» and «might»)

could It could rain, but it is not very common in this
part of the country.
possibility
(weakerthan «may»)
might It’s not very cloudy yet, but it might rain.
possibility
(strongerthan «might»)
may It’s starting to get cloudy – it may rain soon.
futureactions/states/intentions will Look at the sky! It will rain soon.
  1. Выберите в скобках правильный вариант модального глагола. Переведите предложения.
  1. He … (can’t/couldn’t) open the window as it was stuck.
  2. Interpreters … (may/must) translate without dictionaries.
  3. … (Can/May) I use me your bike for today?
  4. … (May/Could) you give me the recipe for this cake?
  5. I hardly ever see Jane, she … (may/might) have moved to Africa.
  6. Take an umbrella. It … (may/can) rain.
  7. You … (could/should) stop smoking. You know you … (cannot/must not) buy health.
  8. You … (may/must) finish the article as soon as possible.
  9. Liz doesn’t … (ought to/have to) keep to a diet anymore.
  10. Lara … (can/might) get a playstation for her birthday.
  11. You … (must not/needn’t) read in the dark.
  12. My grandfather is retired, so he … (shouldn’t/doesn’t have to) go to work.
  13. The fridge is full, so we … (must not/needn’t) go shopping.
  14. Our employees … (can/must) sign this agreement.
  15. We … (may/ought to) reserve a table in advance if we want to have dinner there.

 

  1. Преобразуйте предложения с модальными глаголами в прошедшее время. Используйтеcould, had to, was to, was allowed to.

Например: Bob can’t dive. — Last year Bob couldn’t dive.

  1. We can’t buy a new car. – Last summer …
  2. Mike may take my laptop computer for a couple of hours.– Thismorning …
  3. Victor has to call his mother. – Yesterday …
  4. You don’t need to paper the walls.– Yesterday …
  5. She is to be at the office at 9 a.m. – Last Friday …

 

  1.   Преобразуйте предложения с модальными глаголами в будущее время. Используйтеwill be able to, will be allowed to, will have to.

Например: The baby can talk.– Soon the baby will be able totalk.

  1. He can’t get the tickets.– I’mafraid …
  2. You may use my camera. – Tomorrow …
  3. I am to wait for him at the airport. – Next Sunday …
  4. You must tell me the truth. – Very soon …
  5. I have to take these pills 3 times a day.– Tomorrow …

 

  1. Переведите английские пословицы, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
  1. A man can do no more than he can.
  2. Anyone who has to ask the price cannot afford it.
  3. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones at their neighbours.
  4. You must learn to walk before you can run.
  5. He who falls today may rise tomorrow.
  6. A bird may be known by its song.
  7. He who laughs at crooked men should need to walk very straight.
  8. Talk of the devil and he is to appear.
  9. A tree must be bent while young.
  10. The wind can’t be caught in a net.

 

  1. Дайте совет, используя модальный глагол should. (Возможны несколько советов.)

Например: My eyes are tired.– You should go to bed.

  1. I amcold.
  2. I amthirsty.
  3. I amhungry.
  4. My life is too hectic.
  5. I’vecaught a cold.

 

  1. Составьте предложения с модальными глаголами, расставив слова в нужном порядке. Переведите получившиеся предложения.

Например: don’t / to / I / answer / have / questions / your.   – I don’t have to answer your questions. (Я не обязан отвечать на ваши вопросы.)

  1. the party / Linda / to / come / might / tonight.
  2. round / work / have to / farmers / the year / all.
  3. you / not / hospital / noise / must / make / in.
  4. the light / I / switch / may / on ?
  5. your / look / could / passport / I / at ?
  6. my / cook / can / quite / wife / well.
  7. catch / last / able to / we / were / train / the.
  8. not / jeans / you / must / wear / to / school.
  9. didn’t / you / drink / have to / much / yesterday / so.
  10. ought to / bill / Robert / the electricity / pay / today.
  11. better / we / find / a / should / job.
  12. too much / you / salt / and / eat / sugar / shouldn’t.
  13. do / get / to / Turkey / I / have to / a visa ?
  14. he / manners / improve / his / needs to.
  15. needn’t / you / complain.
 
7. Выполните тест.
 1. _____ you help me with my homework?
  1. A) Are
    B) May
    C) Can
    D) Need
  2. You _____ enter without a tie.
  3. A) aren’t
    B) can’t
    C) ought not
    D) weren’t
  4. We _____ leave now or we’ll be late.
  5. A) has to
    B) must
    C) can
    D) will
  6. If you had video, you _____ record it yourself tonight.
  7. A) could
    B) can
    C) must
    D) may
  8. A: My car has been stolen.
    B: _____.
  9. A) You should ring the police.
    B) Will you phone the police?
    C) Could you ring the police?
    D) You are phoning the police.
  10. A: She can’t sing.
    B: Neither_____.
  11. A) do I
    B) could I
    C) am I
    D) can I
  12. If you don’t feel better you _____ go to bed.
  13. A) ought
    B) should
    C) don’t have to
    D) needn’t
  14. You _____ get the 8.45 train. It doesn’t stop at Yorkshire.
  15. A) had better
    B) mustn’t
    C) should
    D) don’t have to
  16. His illness got worse and worse. In the end he _____ go into hospital for an operation.
  17. A) will have to
    B) must
    C) had to
    D) ought to have
  18. You _____ any more aspirins; you’ve had four already.
  19. A) mustn’t take
    B) needn’t have taken
    C) shouldn’t have taken
    D) had better not take
  20. You _____ spanked her. She didn’t deserve it.
  21. A) shouldn’t have
    B) needn’t have
    C) mustn’t have
    D) couldn’t have
  22. A: I wonder who took my alarm clock.
    B: It _____ Julia. She _____ supposed to get up early.
  23. A) might be / is
    B) could be / is
    C) had to be / was
    D) must have been / was
  24. In a hundred years’ time we _____ out of water to drink.
  25. A) must have run
    B) might have been/run
    C) should have run
    D) may have run
  26. A: Did you enjoy the concert?
    B: It was OK, but I ___ to the theatre.
  27. A) needn’t have gone
    B) must have gone
    C) had better go
    D) would rather have gone
  28. When I was a child, I _____ a flashlight to bed with me so that I _____ read comic books without my parents’ knowing them.
  29. A) used to take / could
    B) was used to taking / could
    C) would take / can
    D) would have taken / was able to

 

 

 

Ответы:

1.

  1. сouldn’t (Он не мог открыть окно, так как оно застряло.)
  2. must (Переводчики должны переводить без словарей.)
  3. May (Можно мне воспользоваться твоим велосипедом сегодня?)
  4. Could (Ты не могла бы дать мне рецепт этого торта?)
  5. might (Я почти не вижу Джейн, возможно она переехала в Африку.)
  6. may (Возьми зонт. Может пойти дождь.)
  7. should – cannot (Тебе следует перестать курить. Ты же знаешь, что не сможешь купить здоровье.)
  8. must (Ты должен закончить статью как можно скорее.)
  9. haveto (Лизе больше не нужно сидеть на диете.)
  10. might (Лара возможно получит игровую приставку на свой день рождения.)
  11. mustnot (Тебе нельзя читать в темноте.)
  12. doesn’thaveto (Мой дед на пенсии, поэтому ему не нужно ходить на работу.)
  13. needn’t (Холодильник полон, поэтому нам не обязательно идти в магазин.)
  14. must (Наши служащие должны подписывать это соглашение.)
  15. oughtto (Нам следует зарезервировать столик заранее, если мы хотим там поужинать.)

2.

  1. Last night you had to show your identity card here.
  2. Last summer we couldn’t buy a new car.
  3. This morning  Mike was allowed to take my laptop computer for a couple of hours.
  4. Yesterday Victor had to call his mother.
  5. Yesterday you didn’t need to paper the walls.

3.

  1. I’m afraid he won’t be able to get the tickets.
  2. Tomorrow you will be allowed to use my camera.
  3. Next Sunday I will have to wait for him at the airport.
  4. Very soon you will have to tell me the truth.
  5. Tomorrow I will have to take these pills 3 times a day.

4.

  1. Человек может сделать не больше, чем может. (Выше головы не прыгнешь.)
  2. Любой, кто вынужден спросить про цену, не может этого себе позволить.
  3. Людям, живущим в стеклянных домах, не следует бросать камни в соседей. (Как аукнется, так и откликнется. Не рой другому яму – сам в нее попадешь.)
  4. Ты должен научиться ходить, прежде чем сможешь бегать. (Сперва «аз» да «буки», а потом науки.)
  5. Тот, кто падает сегодня, может подняться завтра. (После ненастья — солнышко. Не терт, не мят – не будет калач.)
  6. Птицу можно узнать по ее песне. (Птицу видно по полету.)
  7. Тому, кто смеется над горбатыми, нужно самому ходить очень прямо. (Нет лучше шутки, как над собой.)
  8. Заговори о дьяволе, и он появится. (Легок на помине.)
  9. Дерево нужно гнуть, пока оно молодое. (Учи ребенка, пока мал. Куй железо, пока горячо.)
  10. Ветер невозможно поймать в сети. (За ветром в поле не угонишься.)

5.

  1. You should put on warm clothes. You should drink hot tea. (Тебе нужно надеть теплую одежду. Тебе нужно попить горячий чай.)
  2. Youshoulddrinkwater. (Тебе нужно выпить воды.)
  3. You should have lunch. (Тебенужнопообедать.)
  4. Youshouldcalmdown. (Тебе нужно успокоиться.)
  5. You should take medicine. You should visit the doctor. (Тебе нужно принять лекарство. Тебе нужно сходить к доктору.)

6.

  1. Linda might come to the party tonight. (Линда, возможно, придет вечером на вечеринку.)
  2. Farmers have to work all the year round. (Фермеры должны работать круглый год.)
  3. You must not make noise in hospital. (Вам нельзя шуметь в больнице.)
  4. May I switch on the light? (Можно мне включить свет?)
  5. Could I look at your passport? (Могла бы я взглянуть на ваш паспорт?)
  6. My wife can cook quite well. (Моя жена умеет готовить довольно хорошо.)
  7. We were able to catch the last train. (Мы смогли успеть на последний поезд.)
  8. You must not wear jeans to school. (Вы не должны носить джинсы в школу.)
  9. You didn’t have to drink so much yesterday. (Тебе не нужно было пить так много вчера.)
  10. Robert ought to pay the electricity bill today. (Роберту нужно оплатить счет за электричество сегодня.)
  11. We should find a better job. (Нам следует найти работу получше.)
  12. You shouldn’t eat too much salt and sugar. (Тебе не следует есть слишком много соли и сахара.)
  13. Do I have to get a visa to Turkey? (Мне необходимо получить визу в Турцию?)
  14. He needs to improve his manners. (Ему нужно работать над своими манерами.)
  15. You needn’t complain. (Тебе не нужно жаловаться.)

1 – C, 2 – B, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – A, 6 – D, 7 – B, 8 – B, 9 – C, 10 – A, 11 – A, 12 – D, 13 – D, 14 – D, 15 – A.